Skepter Zomer 2023
In de Skepter zomer 2023 verscheen een kort artikel van mijn hand 'Seks met aliens'. Daarin onderzocht ik de mogelijkheid of buitenaardse wezens seks zouden kunnen hebben met mensen en nakomelingen zouden kunnen voortbrengen. Het was een spin-off van de bespreking van het boek van Erich von Daniken 'Evolution is Wrong' op mijn WDW website. Omdat ik maar beperkte ruimte had moest ik veel interessante argumenten weglaten en kon ik geen literatuurlijst geven. Hieronder volgt een lijst die ik de komende tijd zal aanvullen.
Literature about the possibility of sex with aliens.
In the summer edition of
an article (Dutch) by myself appeared about the possibility of aliens
having sex with humans. The magazine is published by the
Dutch Skeptics society. The article is a
spin-off of the review of
Erich von Daniken 'Evolution is Wrong'. According to von Daniken "There were and there are genetic interventions conducted by aliens in humans." Because the size restrictions of the article I could not include many
interesting arguments and literature. Here I give a literature list which
I will update in the coming weeks.
It appears that their are many obstacles to human-alien hybridization
despite the fact that physical and biochemical laws are truly universal.
Interestingly, the obstacles are caused by unique historical evolutionary
events that happened during the evolution of life on planet earth. Those
accidental features create an insurmountable barrière to hybridization.
- Humans: Human Genome and Human chromosomes.
- Chromosome numbers: List of organisms by chromosome count shows huge variation in chromosome number of organisms on planet earth.
(universal genetic code) including
Alternative genetic codes. The
Vertebrate mitochondrial code
(including humans) has 4 different codes compared to the Universal
Genetic Code. In the evolutionary past many genes from the original
mitochondrion migrated to the nucleus and only 37 genes remained in
mitochondrial DNA (a unique historical process).
- Sex chromosomes: Y-chromsome, and The Incredible Shrinking Sex Chromosome, the Y-chromosome has its own unique history.
- Non-standard chromosome number in healthy humans: Robertsonian translocation with a human with 2n=44.
in meiosis (Synaptonemal complex) is only possible between a chromosome from the father and the
homologous chromosome from the mother. If the father is an alien, pairing
will fail because there will be no homologous chromosomes at all,
consequently the hypothetical hybrid is sterile.
- An unusually knowledgeable Wikipedia page about hybidization between humans and non-humans.
- Biological species are separated by reproductive barriers. A species is a group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes can produce fertile offspring.
of alien and human must match (anatomy, physiology, endocrinology).
Sperm must find its way to the egg cell, see:
How sperm find their way.
- Fertility problems are expected to be a reproductive barrier between humans and aliens. Infertility in the humans species has become a major issue for human reproductive health and affects up to one in seven couples worldwide. That is 14% of couples experience fertility problems. Estimates from 1997 suggest that worldwide about five percent of all heterosexual couples have an unresolved problem with infertility (wikipedia). And that is within the human species. See: Understanding the genetics of human infertility, Science, 13 Apr 2023.
- Genetic incompatibility: Genetic incompatibility of the reproductive partners: an evolutionary perspective on infertility, Human Reproduction, 2021 (Open Access) is about the human species. One problem is that natural fertilisation success is heavily dependent on the ability of sperm to traverse the female reproductive tract in the vicinity of an unfertilised oocyte. Sperm are directed towards the chemical factors secreted by unfertilised oocytes. Those factors must match.
- Non-matching paternal and maternal epigenetic imprinting of genes active during pregnancy can cause either suboptimal or superoptimal growth of the fetus. Wikipedia: Genomic imprinting. 25 jul 2023.
- Human Sperm Plasma Allergy: an immunological reaction against human seminal plasma observed in young women. When untreated this could be live-threatening. The cause is a protein in the semen. Likely, Alien sperm is expected to be a high risk for developing HSPA. (Wikipedia), (other source) 11 Jul 2023.
- Immune system: pathogens have significantly altered the human genome. This topic has not been included in the Skepter article. The idea is that past pandemics have shaped the human genome and those pathogens and genomic changes are unique for life on earth. Alien beings will not have experienced the same pathogens and consequently those pathogens could be lethal to aliens. Also, hypothetical human-alien hybrids likely will suffer immunological problems.
- Immunological incompatibility (pregnancy): When pregnant, maternal immunologic tolerance is required to ensure that the (alien!) fetus is not "rejected" by the mother’s immune system. 22 Sep 2023
- Biochemistry: here is a nice overview of Hypothetical types of biochemistry on Wikipedia (including hypothetical Silicon-based life).
- DNA van bandsalamanders mengt als olie en water, Kennislink 6 Sep 2023. (laat zien dat hybridisatie tussen nauw verwante salamander soorten geen succes is.)
- Wallace Arthur (2023) 'Understanding Life in the Universe', Cambridge University Press; New edition. Paperback 150 pages. This is a short and useful introduction to astrobiology by an evolutionary biologist who wrote several other books on evolution and astrobiology. See also my introduction to Astrobiology page on my WDW website.
- Stephen Freeland (2008) Fitness of the cosmos for life, chapter 14, page 301 about the Universal Genetic Code.
- Erich von Daniken (2022) 'Evolution is Wrong' (see my review).
Bill Chalker (2005)
Hair of the Alien: DNA and Other Forensic Evidence of Alien
Abductions, Gallery Books. One of the rare instances that a DNA analysis is done
on a hair of an 'alien'.